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英国尾气治理再出新招 且看中国如何打好组合拳

2017-07-28 10:20:14来源:中国环保在线 编辑:周末阅读量:51826

导读:作为连续八年机动车产销世界的国家,面对汽车尾气污染,中国都做出了哪些防治措施?未来又将如何更加有效地治理?
  【中国环保在线 原创视点】日前,英国政府宣布,将于2040年起全面禁售汽油和柴油汽车,减少汽车尾气对空气污染的“贡献”。作为连续八年机动车产销世界的国家,面对汽车尾气污染,中国都做出了哪些防治措施?未来又将如何更加有效地治理?

英国尾气治理再出新招 且看中国如何打好组合拳
 
  据外媒报道,继法国之后,英国政府7月26日宣布,将于2040年起全面禁售汽油和柴油汽车,届时市场上只允许电动汽车等新能源环保车辆销售,确保2050年道路上不再有汽油和柴油车行驶。
 
  禁售汽油和柴油汽车、减少销售化石燃料汽车、控制有机废气排放,有助于立竿见影地解决空气污染问题。英国政府将在尽可能短的时间内降低英国空气污染水平,此举透露出强有力的防治决心。
 
  来看国内,雾霾、臭氧、VOCs、废气处理等是近年来大气污染防治的主攻方向,如何减少重污染天数、呼吸到更多的新鲜空气、让蓝天白云成为常态是广大民众的一大期许。
 
  针对国内空气污染的形成原因,业内众说纷纭,其污染来源一直是个争论不休的话题。汽车尾气?燃煤污染?工业排放?到底哪个是主因还需要不断研究。不过可以肯定的是,汽车尾气是我国空气污染的重要来源之一。
 
  随着汽车保有量的持续增长,我国已连续八年成为世界机动车产销大国。根据环保部公布的《中国机动车环境管理年报(2017)》显示,机动车尾气排放污染已成为继工业污染之后的第二大污染源,是我国造成细颗粒物、光化学烟雾污染的重要原因。由此可见,汽车尾气污染防治迫在眉睫。与发达国家一样,我国也正在抓紧步伐,多措并举防治汽车尾气带来的空气污染。
 
  在政策层面,早在1999年,环保部就提出了《机动车排放污染防治技术政策》;2013年颁布的“大气十条”也明确提出对机动车污染的管控;2014年,12部委联合发布《加强“车油路”统筹加快推进机动车污染综合防治方案》;2016年10月10日,环保部公布《机动车污染防治技术政策(征求意见稿)》,提出对机动车尾气污染防治策略和方法,范围涵盖了机动车、车用油品、检测设备……
 
  放眼全国,在上述政策的引导下,多个省市已经展开对汽车尾气的治理行动。2017年,北京以重型柴油车整治、新车排放监管、油气排放监管、检测检验机构监管为重点,加强机动车尾气治理;严格规范油品标准实施,提高新车排放标准,着力淘汰高污染排放车辆,鼓励新能源汽车消费和使用。
 
  作为全国机动车保有量位居第二的城市——成都,草拟了机动车环保检测规范、推行限行限号措施、加速淘汰黄标车,同时还对加油站和储油库进行油气回收设施专项检查。
 
  另外,在广州的PM2.5来源中,汽车尾气占据大头。自7月1日起,广州全市范围内限行黄标车,加大对老旧车辆淘汰力度,且对重型柴油车和轻型柴油客车实行国V标准。下一阶段,广州将重点加大公交车氮氧化物减排力度,分步推进公交车纯电动化。
 
  随着国家对大气污染防治的重视,顶层设计正在不断地完善,各项治理措施层出不穷。然而,在具体的防治上,鉴于目前暂不可能快速减少汽车保有量,若要从根本上控制机动车的气态污染物排放,笔者认为,首先该从机动车本身入手:
 
  其一,加强对机动车生产、使用、淘汰全过程监管:达标生产新车,环保管理用车(使用清洁燃料、提升油品质量),加速淘汰黄标车和高排放用车,开展对柴油车打假专项活动。
 
  其二,大力推广使用新能源汽车。受益利好政策,近年来,新能源车在我国日渐普及,整体市场迎来了强劲增长期。我们相信随着续航里程与充电时间等技术问题的突破,未来节能减排、环保的新能源汽车将会是行业潮流。

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