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垃圾焚烧飞灰能否直接填埋? 怎么防止二次污染?

2020-09-04 09:34:37来源:环保在线整理 阅读量:41033

导读:为什么我国对垃圾焚烧飞灰处置这么关注?
  2020年8月27日,生态环境部正式发布国家环境保护标准《生活垃圾焚烧飞灰污染控制技术规范(试行)》(HJ 1134-2020)
 
  首次发布,指导性标准,规定了生活垃圾焚烧飞灰收集、贮存、运输、处理和处置过程的污染控制技术要求。
 
  要求,应根据后续利用或处置方式对飞灰污染控制的要求,选择适当的处理技术;对飞灰处理和处置技术,有专用污染控制标准的,执行专用污染控制标准。
 
  飞灰处理过程产生废水的监测频次应为至少每个季度1次;
 
  飞灰及其处理产物的贮存设施废气直接排放的,监测频次应为至少每个季度1次;
 
  飞灰处理过程废气中颗粒物的监测频次应为至少每个月1次;
 
  飞灰低温热分解、高温烧结和高温熔融处理设施废气中颗粒物和重金属的监测频次应为至少每个月1次,二噁英类的监测频次应为至少每年1次。
 
  此前,住建部还发布了行业标准《生活垃圾焚烧飞灰稳定化处理设备技术要求》,自2019年12月1日实施。
 
  规定了生活垃圾焚烧飞灰稳定化处理设备的系统设备组成,分类与型号,要求,试验方法,检验规则,标志,包装,随机文件,运输和贮存等内容。
 
  为什么我国对垃圾焚烧飞灰处置这么关注?
 
  生活垃圾焚烧飞灰,是被列入国家危废名录HW18焚烧处置残渣一列的,编号772-002-18;以及危险废物焚烧、热解等处置过程产生的底渣、飞灰和废水处理污泥(医疗废物焚烧处置产生的底渣除外),编号772-003-18;危险废物等离子体、高温熔融等处置过程产生的非玻璃态物质和飞灰,编号772-004-18。
 
  究其根本原因,还是在于垃圾焚烧飞灰中易携带二噁英、重金属等污染物,处置不当会引发二次污染。当然,危废名录中也明确,对经特殊处置符合标准的垃圾焚烧飞灰给予豁免。
 
  即,在垃圾焚烧过程中无法保证飞灰的无害性,则飞灰需要进一步无害化处理。
 
  目前,我国生活垃圾焚烧飞灰处置存在氯元素含量高、成分复杂、波动大的技术处置难点。总体而言,常用的方式包括固化稳定化、水泥窑协同处置、湿法化学处理法和安全填埋法等。
 
  水泥窑协同处置飞灰,也是水泥窑协同处置固危废体系下一个重要分支,也是利用水泥窑焚烧高温(1800℃到2200℃)来去除有机污染物和有害成分。而且,由于飞灰主要成分与水泥生料成分类似,所以其替代效率也较高。
 
  这种模式的优势还体现在,水泥窑窑尾分解炉温度也达到了危险废弃物二燃炉的反应温度,可以有效减少二噁英再次生成。另外,水泥窑尾分解炉可以有效抑制HCL的排放。同时,水泥窑协同处置能有效剥离出飞灰中的重金属,还具有成本效益。
 
  另一个需要强调的是危废焚烧飞灰的处置,业界认为就现阶段来看,危废焚烧飞灰处置技术仍要加快突破,尤其是对稳定效果好且成本低的化学稳定剂有巨大需求。同时,要进一步做好危废入炉的精细化管理,着力在能耗和效益方面探索处置新方式,并向资源化利用进一步靠拢。
 

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