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生态环境部有关负责人就《生活垃圾焚烧飞灰污染控制技术规范(试行)》答记者问

2020-09-23 08:44:16来源:生态环境部 阅读量:18404

导读:近日,《生活垃圾焚烧飞灰污染控制技术规范(试行)》(HJ 1134-2020)(以下简称《技术规范》)发布实施。生态环境部固体司有关负责人就《技术规范》的出台背景、编制原则、主要内容等回答了记者提问。
  近日,《生活垃圾焚烧飞灰污染控制技术规范(试行)》(HJ 1134-2020)(以下简称《技术规范》)发布实施。生态环境部固体司有关负责人就《技术规范》的出台背景、编制原则、主要内容等回答了记者提问。
 
  问:《技术规范》出台的主要背景是什么?
 
  答:近年来我国生活垃圾焚烧产业快速发展,焚烧处理量逐年增加,同时产生了大量富集重金属和二噁英类污染物的生活垃圾焚烧飞灰(以下简称飞灰)。目前,飞灰主要以填埋方式进行处置,资源化利用发展较滞后;飞灰填埋存在不达标、不规范等问题,环境隐患较突出。为规范飞灰的处理处置,推动飞灰资源化利用,提高飞灰处理处置技术水平,规范和指导飞灰的环境管理,制定了《技术规范》。
 
  问:《技术规范》编制的主要原则是什么?
 
  答:《技术规范》编制的原则主要包括:
 
  (一)重视风险防控。充分考虑飞灰中重金属、二噁英类、氯等对生态环境和人体健康的影响,根据处理处置后不同暴露场景确定了控制限值,确保长期环境安全。
 
  (二)引导综合利用。在规范飞灰填埋处置方式的同时,明确了水泥窑协同处置及其他利用方式的污染控制要求,引导企业选择综合利用技术路线,逐步降低飞灰填埋量。
 
  (三)创新分级管理。针对飞灰处理产物按照危险废物管理对技术发展的制约问题,提出了飞灰处理产物分级管理要求,即满足6.3、6.5条污染控制要求的飞灰处理产物,不再按照危险废物进行管理,而是按照GB 34330进行鉴别,将其不作为固体废物管理或按照一般工业固体废物管理。
 
  问:《技术规范》的可行性如何?
 
  答:编制组调研了国内外飞灰处理处置相关工艺技术,根据各工艺技术处理处置产物的去向,确定了污染控制要求,确保飞灰处理处置全过程的环境风险可控。《技术规范》的实施,将有利于企业选择与我国当前的经济、技术发展水平相适应的飞灰处理处置工艺技术,在减少飞灰填埋的同时促进其资源化利用,防治和避免飞灰处理处置过程的二次污染,为打通生活垃圾的清洁焚烧全链条提供保障。
 
  问:《技术规范》中飞灰处理产物用于水泥熟料生产之外的其他利用方式的要求有哪些?
 
  答:《技术规范》中对飞灰处理产物用于水泥熟料生产之外的其他利用方式从以下方面分别提出了污染控制要求:一是控制污染物含量,提出飞灰处理产物中的二噁英类含量、重金属浸出浓度限值要求;二是控制可溶性氯含量,减少对利用产品性能的影响及利用过程的盐分渗出;三是控制利用过程的污染,要求利用过程的污染防治符合《固体废物再生利用污染防治技术导则》的要求。
 
  问:《技术规范》中规定“飞灰及其处理产物不得用于烧结砖生产”,是出于什么考虑?
 
  答:在烧结砖生产过程中,易形成适于二噁英类污染物再合成的条件,可能造成二噁英类再合成的量较大。而现有烧结砖窑的烟气处理系统仅要求设置脱硫和除尘装置,存在二噁英类污染物超标排放风险。此外,大部分烧结砖生产企业的管理能力尚不足以支撑飞灰的安全处置利用。
 
  原标题:生态环境部有关负责人就《生活垃圾焚烧飞灰污染控制技术规范(试行)》答记者问

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