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关于污泥焚烧和污泥热解碳化的这12个问题 有人帮你问啦——直接翻答案

视环会同期污泥处理处置研讨会(第四期)问答篇

2022-12-09 07:20:58来源:环保在线 编辑:Leven阅读量:49919

导读:关于污泥焚烧和污泥热解碳化的12个问题,金孚环境和苏伊士亚洲相关负责人的解答,你们都看了吗?
  HI,咱又见面了~
 
  《3大工程师直播答疑16问——污泥焚烧、脱水、厌氧全覆盖》带你回顾了上海市环境工程设计科学研究院研发中心总工程师&副主任张瑞娜、天津锐创环保工程有限公司高级工程师王斌科、普拉克环保系统(北京)有限公司高级工艺工程师戴桂蕊为观众带来的解答,有没有你想知道的答案呢?
 
  2022视环会秋季展举办的同期高峰论坛之《污泥处理处置研讨会(第四期)》还邀请了山东金孚环境工程有限公司副总经理景元琢、苏伊士亚洲技术推广经理程忠红分别聊聊污泥热解碳化技术和污泥焚烧集成系统,同样收获了直播观众的踊跃提问,一起来看看吧↓(注:以下所有问答都经过精简)

(↑ 点击回顾)
 
  山东金孚环境工程有限公司副总经理景元琢
 
  ——污泥热解碳化成套技术分享及应用前景探讨
 
  问:日处理量和投资多少?环境评价过了吗
 
  答:环评是肯定要过的,所有项目环评都是必须过的,投资会关联工艺,前端物料不同、含水率不同、处理量不同等都会影响投资。粗略测算,比如包括污泥脱水全链条(设备和系统)的话,含水率在80%左右的吨泥投资大致在30W到40W之间(仅供参考)。
 
  问:污泥从80%的含水率到碳化状态,整个流程的处理成本是多少?
 
  答:处理成本分为两部分,一个是污泥脱水,常规来说应该是60元-80元/吨,另一个是污泥干化/碳化,大致的成本在120元 -140元/吨之间,综合起来就是在200元左右。就是直接成本,包含了人工、电费、药剂消耗、维修维护费等等,但是不含管理成本和投资折旧费用。
 
  问:污泥碳化过程中,是怎么解决重金属无害化问题的?
 
  答:经过大量的研究证明,热解过程中会消除重金属的生物毒性,主要转化为了残渣态,残渣态的比例越高就表明,污泥后续在生态环境中(弱酸、弱碱、雨水浸泡等)不会浸出(重金属),也就是消除了生物毒性。技术体系基本成熟,业界也普遍认可这个结论。
 
  问:市政污泥的热值偏低,天然气用量是不是会很大,大概每吨需要多少天然气?
 
  答:天然气用量主要就是跟热值有关系,污泥热值大致会在7MJ到10MJ之间,天然气消耗大致会在20m³到25m³之间,热值越高消耗越少。还有一个是前端脱水,建议是在60%到65%之间,用带式过滤机脱水含水率会高一些,而像立式压滤这样基本能做到50%左右,消耗的天然气量会少很多。
 
  问:污泥碳化对污泥有机质含量有要求吗?
 
  答:碳化技术本身是没有要求的,但是从整个能量利用角度看,还是希望有机质含量越高越好。我们评价能否用碳化技术,大致的标准是看热值(建议在5MJ以上),如果不足5MJ用碳化技术就会涉及到成本高的问题。
 
  问:污泥热解之后固态作为土壤调节剂,热解气冷却后变成的焦油,焦油可以替代什么油?
 
  答:其实我们并不希望热解气冷凝下来成为焦油,因为焦油品质比较低,处理和应用渠道也比较窄,我们更希望在高温燃烧下它能作为热量使用,也能降低天然气的消耗。
 
  苏伊士亚洲技术推广经理程忠红
 
  ——污泥焚烧也要因地制宜地进行系统集成
 
  问:含水率65%的污泥可以用泵送吗?柱塞泵还是螺杆泵?
 
  答:可以,苏伊士长沙项目就是用的柱塞泵,长度最长大概有241米,但是这跟常规的不太一样,需要考虑它的特殊性,比如沿途的保温,防堵塞等等,都需要特殊的设计。
 
  问:各种污泥干化机的吨投资成本和运营成本是多少呢?
 
  答:运营成本各地差别会比较大,比如污泥中有机质含量不同,后续处置的含水率不一样,都会影响成本。还有在污泥干化中,一大半的能耗都是蒸汽的费用,各地蒸汽费用以及项目拿到的蒸汽价格也很不一样。比如在电厂里建,用自己的蒸汽就很便宜。
 
  问:氧化钙脱水固化的话,用量是多少呢?
 
  答:一般不建议用加石灰的方式,因为会破坏热值,后续处置也会受到很大限制,降低处置效率。
 
  问:长沙项目注膜站的药剂是什么?注膜系统自带药剂制备系统吗?
 
  答:项目每隔一段会加一个环节,通过这个地方可以注水保证管道内壁的湿润,也可以进行PAM 水处理聚合物投加。但是这个项目虽然设计了注膜环节(为了增加保障),运行到现在其实也还没有启用这个方案。
 
  问:单独焚烧对污泥含水率和热值有什么要求?
 
  答:通常来说,热值高的话,污泥含水率可以高一点,热值低的话,污泥含水率就要低一点。比如污泥含水率在60%左右,那么干圾热值就需要在3000大卡左右,如果是73%,热值就需要达到3800(大卡)左右。
 
  问:热电厂掺烧印染污泥的话,鉴于污泥含有重金属,这种技术建议使用吗?
 
  答:其实如果有重金属的话是不应该拿去热电厂掺烧的,这种污泥更多会定性为危废。9月份,住建部出台了一个污泥处理处置的方案,也明确提到严禁将工业污泥跟市政污泥混处理。
 
  由于时间关系,很多互动问题没有得到一一解答,一部分在会后以文字形式进行了回复,并且本次研讨会还精选了一批互动内容,送出视环会专属礼品,不知道哪些观众成为了“欧皇”呢。
 
  当然,如果还有更多问题,不妨联系我们几位专家和企业做进一步的沟通吧。下一次,我们还期待看到更多观众能参与到互动中来,让线上论坛的沟通“无界限”,为更多环保人和终端用户解决问题,助力更多行业减污降碳,实现零排目标。

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