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地沟油摇身一变成“生物航油”,餐厨垃圾滤油市场“又一春”

2022-09-22 14:56:00来源:环保在线 阅读量:34728

导读:受能源紧张局势影响,“生物航油”在全球航空市场收获了不少的关注。除了被当做传统能源的替代物之外,生物燃料还是当前航空业减污降碳最为可行的方式。在此背景下,餐厨废弃物滤油设备市场抢先打开,山高环能已从其中获得了良好的反馈。
  说起地沟油,大家肯定都不陌生,毕竟与我们的饮食、食品安全密切相关。但就是这些人人嫌弃、从剩菜剩饭中提炼出来的废油,现在也能“变废为宝”,作为可持续航空燃料用在很有科技感的航空领域,又称“生物航油”
 
  受能源紧张局势影响,这一环保新能源在全球航空市场收获了不少的关注。
 
  日本航空行业将有10%的燃料来自地沟油
 
  前几日,日本成田机场正式引入以废弃食用油等为原材料制造的可持续航空燃料,以缓解传统能源价格走高带来的成本压力。据悉,日本主要使用植物油,回收得到的新燃料与传统航空燃料相比碳减排也更低,预计能减少八成左右。
 
  不仅如此,日本每年会生产大约50万吨的废弃食用油,如不进行有效处理也会对环境造成危害。目前日本已出台法律禁止向下水道超标排放废油,整体回收率能达到八成左右。按日本政府的计划,到2030年其国内航空公司燃料有10%将被替换成可持续航空燃料。
 
  日本能源、航空相关企业正迅速开展合作,还带动了废弃食用油价格的走高。有报道称,当地废油回收价格上涨明显,甚至有部分地区较去年翻了一番。
 
  我国航空业实现“碳中和”的利器
 
  除了被当做传统能源的替代物之外,生物燃料还是当前航空业减污降碳最为可行的方式。整体上看,航空运输业的碳排放量约占整个运输行业的10%、占碳排放总量的2%,占比并不算高,但降碳难度却数一数二。
 
  这主要是因为航空业的碳排放有近五分之四都来自航空煤油的燃烧,而飞机飞行显然离不开能源支撑。在目前较为可行的几个方案中,电动化、氢能化短期内都还足以匹配飞行和飞机载重的需要。这样一来,仅有与航空煤油性质相近的生物燃料能承担起节能减排的重任。
 
  我国对生物航油的探索早在2009年就已经开始,首架搭载生物航油的东航空客飞机在2013年试飞成功。2022年9月,中石化宣布,旗下镇海炼化正式获得民航局颁发的“生物航煤适航证书”,意味着我国真正拥有了将“地沟油”转化成生物航煤的成熟技术。这里提到的生物航煤,就是指生物航空煤油,其主要原料为多种动物油脂,地沟油也是重要来源之一。
 
  餐厨废弃物滤油设备市场先打开
 
  据中石化解释,地沟油变身“生物航油”至少经历四个环节:脱盐处理、加氢提质(转化成精制油)、异构降凝(降低冰点)、分馏提纯,每个环节的攻克都需要下一番苦功夫。中石化在2009年左右就开始了生物航煤的研发,但直到近期才拿到证书,之后还要再经过多条航线试飞测试。
 
  但在这些相当专业的制油步骤开始之前,有一件事情非做不可,即从餐厨垃圾中分离出“地沟油”,才能进行后续的一连串工作。因此,餐厨垃圾相关的水油分离、滤油、渗滤液处理技术、设备等,无疑将先被“生物航油”的风口关照到。
 
  推进地沟油回收合理化、规范化,部分地方已经抢先行动。去年11月份,《广州市餐厨垃圾管理办法》出台,明确从事餐厨垃圾回收工作的企业,可“合法买卖”废弃食用油脂,包括泔水油、煎炸废油和地沟油,鼓励对废弃油脂进行深加工,生产生物柴油、洗衣粉、混凝土制品脱模剂等产品。
 
  值得注意的是,深耕这一领域的山高环能(原“北清环能”)已经获得了良好的反馈。山高环能半年报显示,其营收同比增长170.57%,变动原因为出口油脂销售及环保设备销售所致。种种因素影响下,我国废弃食用油脂出口价格快速上涨,6月出口单价已达1507美元/吨。另外,生物柴油+生物航煤具备确定性需求潜力,其重要原材料未来价格当然有望保持高位。
 
  山高环能负责人表示:“在掌握底层资源的基础上,公司将紧密结合内外部产业资源,积极拓展生物柴油和生物航煤业务,增厚产品附加值,成为废弃食用油脂资源化领域龙头企业。”

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